If you have cartridges installed in your HP printer that were previously working but now suddenly produce an error message such as 'Cartridge Damaged or Missing' or 'Cartridge Not Recognised', it could be that your printer has received a recent firmware upgrade.
As a consequence of this, chip information on 3rd party cartridges usually become unreadable. Recognition by the printer is then not possible rendering the cartridge useless in its current state.
During the initial setup process of a new printer, you may have noticed an opt-in/out check box to agree to receive and install any new firmware updates as and when they become available, providing your printer has a network connection (wireless/ethernet). Many people quickly skip over the terms and conditions when installing their printer and unfortunately the firmware/software update is usually selected by default.
If you are not sure if you're currently receiving updates you can usually delve into your printers settings/properties panel on your PC or Laptop and change the setting from there.